Kelp Forest Literature

Below is a list of publications relating to kelp forest ecology.  Keep in mind that this is not an exhaustive list, and that many of the authors listed below have other publications that may also be of interest. If you’re looking for publications on a specific topic, use the search function (though note that this only searches the title, not content of the paper).  To search by author, use last name.

In addition, two key references are:

Schiel, D.R. and M.S. Foster. 2015. The Biology and Ecology of Giant Kelp Forests. University of California Press. Oakland, California, USA. 395 pages. ISBN 978-0-520-27886-8 (cloth), ISBN 978-0-520-96109-8 (ebook).

Carr, M.H. and D.C. Reed. 2015.  Chapter 17: Shallow Rocky Reefs and Kelp Forests. Pages 311-336 in: H. Mooney and E. Zavaleta (eds)  Ecosystems of California. University of California Press. Oakland, California.


AuthorPublication YearTitleJournalFull Text
Allison, GW; Lubchenco, J & Carr, MH1998Marine Reserves are Necessary but not Sufficient for Marine ConservationEcological ApplicationsPDF
Ambrose, RF & Nelson, BV1982Inhibition of giant kelp recruitment by an introduced brown algaBotanica MarinaPDF
Ambrose, RF1986Effects of octopus predation on motile invertebrates in a rocky subtidal communityMarine EcologyPDF
Anderson, BS & Hunt, JW1988Bioassay methods for evaluating the toxicity of heavy metals, biocides and sewage effluent using microscopic stages of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera(Agardh)Marine Environmental ResearchPDF
Anderson, TW2001Predator Responses, Prey Refuges, and Density-Dependent Mortality of a Marine FishEcologyPDF
Anderson, TW1994Role of macroalgal structure in the distribution and abundance of a temperate reef fishMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Anderson, TW & Sabado, BD1995Correspondence between food availability and growth of a planktivorous temperate reef fishJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Annett, C & Pierotti, R1984Foraging behavior and prey selection of the leather seastar Dermasterias imbricataMarine ecology progress seriesPDF
Arkema, KK; Reed, DC & Schroeter, SC2009Direct and Indirect Effects of Giant Kelp Determine Benthic Community Structure and DynamicsEcologyPDF
Arnold, KE & Manley, SL1985Carbon allocation in macrocystis pyrifera intrinsic variability in photosynthesis and respirationJournal of PhycologyPDF
Babcock, RC et al1999Changes in community structure in temperate marine reservesMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Bakun, A1990Global climate change and intensification of coastal ocean upwelling.SciencePDF
Baltz, DM1984Life history variation among female surfperches (Perciformes: Embiotocidae)Environmental Biology of FishesPDF
Beas-Luna, R. & L. Ladah2014Latitudinal, seasonal, and small-scale spatial differences of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, and an herbivore at their southern range limit in the northern hemisphereBotanica MarinaPDF
Barilotti, DC, McPeak, RH & Dayton, PK1985Effects of commercial harvesting on Macrocystis pyrifera haptera growth and survivorshipCalifornia Fish and Game
Barkai, A & McQuaid, C1988Predator-prey role reversal in a marine benthic ecosystem.SciencePDF
Barry, JP et al1995Climate-related, long-term faunal changes in a california rocky intertidal community.SciencePDF
Behrens, MD & Lafferty, KD2004Effects of marine reserves and urchin disease on southern Californian rocky reef communitiesMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Bernstein, BB1983Sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) aggregating behavior investigated by a subtidal multifactorial experimentCanadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic SciencesPDF
Bodkin, JL1986Fish assemblages in Macrocystis and Nereocystis kelp forests off central California.Fishery BulletinPDF
Bodkin, JL1988Effects of kelp forest removal on associated fish assemblages in central CaliforniaJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Bodkin, JL et al2004Foraging depths of sea otters and implications to coastal marine communitiesMarine Mammal SciencePDF
Bodkin, JL et al1987Mortalities of kelp forest fishes associated with large oceanic waves off central California, 1982-1983Environmental Biology of FishesPDF
Bograd, SJ; Checkley, DA & Wooster, WS2003CalCOFI: a half century of physical, chemical, and biological research in the California Current SystemDeep Sea Research Part IIPDF
Bray, RN1981Influence of water currents and zooplankton densities on daily foraging movements of blacksmith,Chromis punctipinnis, a planktivorous reef fish Fisheries Bulletin
Bray, RN; Miller, AC & Geesey, GG1981The Fish Connection : A Trophic Link between Planktonic and Rocky Reef Communities?SciencePDF
Breda, VA & Foster, MS1985Composition, abundance, and phenology of foliose red algae associated with two central California kelp forestsJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Breen, PA & Mann, KH1976Changing lobster abundance and the destruction of kelp beds by sea urchinsMarine BiologyPDF
Briggs, KT et al1987Bird communities at sea off California: 1975 to 9983PDF
Brostoff, WN1988Taxonomic studies of Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh (Phaeophyta) in Southern California: Holdfasts and basal stipesAquatic BotanyPDF
Bruno, JF et al2008Relative and interactive effects of plant and grazer richness in a benthic marine communityEcologyPDF
Bruno, JF & O'Connor, MI2005Cascading effects of predator diversity and omnivory in a marine food webEcology LettersPDF
Cameron, FK1913Kelp and other sources of potashJournal of the Franklin InstitutePDF
Cardinale, BJ; Palmer, MA & Collins, SL2002Species diversity enhances ecosystem functioning through interspecific facilitation.NaturePDF
Cardinale, BJ et al2009Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of ecosystems: a summary of 164 experimental manipulations of species richnessEcologyPDF
Carr, MH1991Habitat selection and recruitment of an assemblage of temperate zone reef fishesJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Carr, MH1989Effects of macroalgal assemblages on the recruitment of temperate zone reef fishesJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Carr, MH & Reed, DC1993Conceptual Issues relevant to marine harvest refuges examples from temperate reef fishesCanadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic SciencesPDF
Carroll, JC1982Seasonal Abundance, Size Composition, and Growth of Rock Crab, Cancer Antennarius Stimpson, off Central CaliforniaJournal of Crustacean BiologyPDF
Chadwick, NE1991Spatial distribution and the effects of competition on some temperate Scleractinia and CorallimorphariaMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Chadwick, NE1987Interspecific aggressive behavior of the corallimorpharian Corynactis californica (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Effects on sympatric corals and sea anemonesBiological BulletinPDF
Chadwick, NE & Adams, C1991Locomotion, asexual reproduction, and killing of corals by the corallimorpharian Corynactis californicaHydrobiologiaPDF
Chapman, ARO1986Age versus stage: an analysis of age- and size-specific mortality and reproduction in a population of Laminaria longicruris pyl.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Clark, RP; Edwards, MS & Foster, MS2004Effects of shade from multiple kelp canopies on an understory algal assemblageMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Cowen, RK; Agegian, CR & Foster, MS1982The maintenance of community structure in a central California giant kelp forestJournal of Experimental Marine ldotsPDF
Cowen, RK1990Sex change and life history patterns of the Labrid, Semicossyphus pulcher, across an environmental gradientCopeiaPDF
Cowen, RK1986Site-specific differences in the feeding ecology of the California sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher (Labridae)Environmental Biology of FishesPDF
Cowen, RK1985Large scale pattern of recruitment by the labrid, Semicossyphus pulcher: Causes and implicationsJournal of Marine ResearchPDF
Cowen, RK1983The effect of sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) predation on red sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) populations: an experimental analysisOecologiaPDF
Coyer, JA1979The invertebrate assemblage associated with Macrocystis pyrifera and its utilization as a food resource by kelp forest fishesThesis
Coyer, JA et al1993Interactions between corals and algae on a temperate rocky reef: mediation by sea urchins zoneJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Davenport, AC & Anderson, TW2007Positive Indirect Effects of Reef Fishes on Kelp Performance: The Importance of MesograzersEcologyPDF
Dayton, PK1975Experimental studies of algal canopy interactions in a sea otter-dominated kelp community at Amchitka Island, AlaskaFishery BulletinPDF
Dayton, PK1985Ecology of kelp communitiesAnnual Review of Ecology and SystematicsPDF
Dayton, PK1985The Structure and Regulation of Some South American Kelp CommunitiesEcological MonographsPDF
Dayton, PK et al1984Patch Dynamics and Stability of Some California Kelp CommunitiesEcological MonographsPDF
Dayton, PK et al1992Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Disturbance and Recovery in a Kelp Forest CommunityEcological MonographsPDF
Dayton, PK & Tegner, MJ1984Catastrophic Storms, El Ni~no, and Patch Stability in a Southern California Kelp CommunitySciencePDF
Dayton, PK et al1998Sliding Baselines , Ghosts , and Reduced Expectations in Kelp Forest CommunitiesPDF
Dean, TA1984Growth of juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales) in relation to environmental factorsMarine BiologoyPDF
Dean, TA & Jacobsen, FR1986Nutrient-limited growth of juvenile kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, during the 1982-1984 El Nino in southern CaliforniaMarine biologyPDF
Dean, TA; Schroeter, SC & Dixon, JD1984Effects of grazing by two species of sea urching (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Lytechinus anamesus) on recruitment and survival of two species of kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora california)Marine BiologyPDF
Dean, TA; Thies, K & Lagos, SL1989Survival of juvenile giant kelp: the effects of demographic factors, competitors, and grazersEcologyPDF
DeMartini, EE & Coyer, JA1981Cleaning and Scale-Eating in Juveniles of the Kyphosid Fishes, Hermosilla azurea and Girella nigricansCopeiaPDF
Demartini, EE1985Social Behavior and Coloration Changes in Painted Greenling , Oxylebius pictus (Pisces: Hexagrammidae)CopeiaPDF
DeMott, WR; Gulati, RD & Van Donk, E2001Effects of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the abundance, phosphorus balance, and growth of Daphnia cucullata in three hypereutrophic Dutch lakesLimnology and OceanographyPDF
DeWreede, RE; Ewanchuk, P & Shaughnessy, F1992Wounding, healing and survivorship in three kelp speciesMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Deysher, LE & Dean, TA1986Interactive effects of light and temperature on sporophyte production in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyriferaMarine BiologyPDF
Deysher, LE & Dean, TA1986In situ recruitment of sporophytes of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C.A. Agardh: effects of physical factorsJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Diffenbaugh, NS; Snyder, MA & Sloan, LC2004Could CO(2)-induced land-cover feedbacks alter near-shore upwelling regimes?Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of AmericaPDF
Douglass, JG; Duffy, JE & Bruno, JF2008Herbivore and predator diversity interactively affect ecosystem properties in an experimental marine communityEcology LettersPDF
Druehl, LD & Breen, PA1986Some Ecological Effects of Harvesting Macrocystis integrifoliaBotanica MarinaPDF
Druehl, LD & Wheeler, WN1986Population biology of Macrocystis integrifolia from British Columbia, CanadaMarine BiologyPDF
Duffy, JE2009Why biodiversity is important to the functioning of real-world ecosystemsFrontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Duffy, JE2003Biodiversity loss, trophic skew and ecosystem functioningEcology LettersPDF
Duggins, D1983Starfish Predation and the Creation of Mosaic Patterns in a Kelp-Dominated CommunityEcologyPDF
Duggins, D & Eckman, JE1994The role of kelp detritus in the growth of benthic suspension feeders in an understory kelp forestJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Duggins, DO & Eckman, JE1997Is kelp detritus a good food for suspension feeders? Effects of kelp species, age and secondary metabolitesMarine BiologyPDF
Duggins, DO; Eckman, JE & Sewell, AT1990Ecology of understory kelp environments. II. Effects of kelps on recruitment of benthic invertebratesJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Duggins, DO; Simenstad, CA & Estes, JA1989Magnification of secondary production by kelp detritus in coastal marine ecosystems.SciencePDF
Ebeling, AW; Larson, RJ & Alevizon, WS1980Habitat Groups and Island-Mainland Distribution of Kelp-bed Fishes off Santa Barbara, CAPDF
Ebeling, AW; Holbrook, SJ & Schmitt, RJ1990Temporally Concordant Structure of a Fish Assemblage: Bound or Determined?The American NaturalistPDF
Ebeling, AW & Laur, DR1986Foraging in surfperches: resource partitioning or individualistic responses?Environmental Biology of FishesPDF
Ebeling, AW & Laur, DR1985The influence of plant cover on surfperch abundance at an offshore temperate reefEnvironmental Biology of FishesPDF
Ebeling, AW; Laur, DR & Rowley, RJ1985Severe storm disturbances and reversal of community structure in a southern California kelp forestMarine BiologyPDF
Ebert, TA & Russell, MP1992Growth and mortality estimates for red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus from San Nicolas Island, CaliforniaMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Ebert, TA & Russell, MP1988Latitudinal Variation in Size Structure of the West Coast Purple Sea Urchin: A Correlation with HeadlandsLimnology and OceanographyPDF
Echeverria, TW1985Sexual dimorphism in four species of rockfish genusSebastes (Scorpaenidae)Environmental biology of fishesPDF
Eckman, JE; Duggins, D & Sewel, AT1989Ecology of understory kelp environments. I. Effects of kelps on flow and particle transport near the bottomJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Edwards, MS2004Estimating scale-dependency in disturbance impacts: El Ninos and giant kelp forests in the northeast PacificOecologiaPDF
Elner, RW & Vadas, RL1990Inference in Ecology: The Sea Urchin Phenomenon in the Northwestern AtlanticThe American NaturalistPDF
Erlandson, JM; Rick, TC & Estes, JA2008Sea otters, shellfish, and humans: 10,000 years of ecological interaction on San Miguel Island, CaliforniaJournal of Archaeological SciencePDF
Estes, JA1989Adaptations for aquatic living by carnivoresBook: Carnivore behavior, ecology, and evolution
Estes, JA1990Growth and Equilibrium in sea otter populationsJournal of Animal EcologyPDF
Estes, JA & Harrold, C1988Sea otters, sea urchins, and kelp beds: Some questions of scaleBook: The community ecology of sea otters
Estes, JA & Duggins, DO1995Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigmEcological MonographsPDF
Estes, JA & VanBlaricom, GR1985Sea-otters and shellfisheriesBook: Marine Mammals and Fisheries
Estes, JA; Duggins, DO & Rathbun, GB1989The Ecology of Extinctions in Kelp Forest CommunitiesConservation BiologyPDF
Estes, JA; Jameson, RJ & Rhode, EB1982Activity and prey election in the sea otter: influence of population status on community structureThe American NaturalistPDF
Estes, JA & Steinberg, PD1988Predation, herbivory, and kelp evolutionPaleobiologyPDF
Fadlallah, YH1982Reproductive ecology of the coral Astrangia iajollaensis: sexual and asexual patterns in a kelp forest habitatOecologiaPDF
Fielding, PJ & Davis, CL1989Carbon and nitrogen resources available to kelp bed filter feeders in an upwelling environmentMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Fink, LA & Manley, SL2011The use of kelp sieve tube sap metal composition to characterize urban runoff in southern California coastal waters.Marine pollution bulletinPDF
Foster, MS1990Organization of macroalgal assemblages in the Northeast Pacific: the assumption of homogeneity and the illusion of generalityHydrobiologiaPDF
Foster, M; Neushul, M & Zingmark, R1971The Santa Barbara oil spill, Part 2: Initial effects on intertidal and kelp bed organismsEnvironmental PollutionPDF
Foster, MS & Schiel, DR2010Loss of predators and the collapse of southern California kelp forests: Alternatives, explanations and generalizationsJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Foster, MS & Vanblaricom, GR2001Spatial variation in kelp forest communities along the Big Sur coast of central California, USACryptogamie AlgologiePDF
Gaines, SD & Roughgarden, J1987Fish in offshore kelp forests affect recruitment to intertidal barnacle populationsSciencePDF
Gerard, VA1984The light environment in a giant kelp forest: influence of Marcocystis pyrifera on spatial and temporal variabilityMarine BiologyPDF
Gerard, VA1982In situ rates of nitrate uptake by giant kelp, Macrycystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh: tissue differences, environmental effects, and predictions of nitrogen-limited growthJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Gerard, VA1976Some Aspects of Material Dynamics and Energy Flow in a Kelp Forest in Monterey Bay, CaliforniaThesis - UCSCPDF
Gerard, VA & North, WJ1984Measuring growth, production, and yield of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyriferaHydrobiologiaPDF
Glynn, PW1988El Nino-Southern Oscillation 1982-1983: Nearshore population, community and ecosystem responsesAnnual Review of Ecology and Systematics
Graham, MH2002Prolonged reproductive consequences of short-term biomass loss in seaweedsMarine BiologyPDF
Graham, MH; Halpern, B & Carr, MH2004Chapter 8: Diversity and Dynamics of California Subtidal Kelp ForestsPDF
Graham, MH2004Effects of Local Deforestation on the Diversity and Structure of Southern California Giant Kelp Forest Food WebsEcosystemsPDF
Graham, MH1997Factors determining the upper limit of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, along the Monterey Peninsula, central California, USAJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Graham, MH; Dayton, PK & Erlandson, JM2003Ice ages and ecological transitions on temperate coastsTrends in Ecology & EvolutionPDF
Graham, MH et al1997Population dynamics of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera along a wave exposure gradientMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Graham, MH; Vasquez, JA & Buschmann, AH2007Global ecology of the giant kelp Macrocystis: from ecotypes to ecosystemsOceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual ReviewPDF
Graham, NE & White, WB1988The El Nino Cycle: A Natural of Oscillator of the Pacific Ocean-Atmosphere SystemSciencePDF
Hagen, NT1995Recurrent destructive grazing of successionally immature kelp forests by green sea urchins in Vestfjorden, Northern NorwayMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Hagen, NT1992Macroparasitic epizootic disease: a potential mechanism for the termination of sea urchin outbreaks in Northern NorwayMarine BiologyPDF
Hallacher, LE & Roberts, DA1985Differential utilization of space and food by the inshore rockfishes (Scorpaenidae: Sebastes) of Carmel Bay, CaliforniaEnvironmental Biology of FishesPDF
Hardwick, E1980Observations of sea otters digging for clams at Monterey Harbor, CaliforniaFishery BulletinPDF
Harrold, C1982Escape Responses and Prey Availability in a Kelp Forest Predator-Prey SystemThe American NaturalistPDF
Harrold, C & Lisin, S1989Radio-tracking rafts of giant kelp: local production and regional transportJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Harrold, C et al1991Isolating settlement from recruitment of sea urchinsJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Harrold, C & Reed, DC1985Food Availability, Sea Urchin Grazing, and Kelp Forest Community StructureEcologyPDF
Harrold, C; Watanabe, J & Lisin, S1988Spatial Variation in the Structure of Kelp Forest Communities Along a Wave Exposure GradientMarine EcologyPDF
Hart, MW & Scheibling, RE1988Heat waves, baby booms, and the destruction of kelp beds by sea urchinsMarine BiologyPDF
Hartmann, AR1987Movement of scorpionfishes (Scorpaenidae: Sebastes and Scorpaena) in the southern California bightCalifornia Fish and Game
Hartney, KB1996Site fidelity and homing behaviour of some kelp-bed fishesJournal of fish biologyPDF
Harvell, CD1992Inducible Defenses and Allocation Shifts in a Marine BryozoanEcologyPDF
Hatfield, BB2005The translocation of sea otters to San Nicolas Island: an updatePDF
Helvey, M1982First Observations of Courtship Behavior in Rockfish , Genus SebastesCopeiaPDF
Himmelman, JH1986Population biology of green sea urchins on rocky barrensMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Himmelman, JH1984Urchin feeding and macroalgal distribution in Newfoundland, eastern CanadaLe Naturaliste Canadien
Hines, AH & Loughlin, TR1980Observations of sea otters digging for clams at Monterey Harbor, CaliforniaFishery Bulletin
Hines, AH; Anderson, S & Brisbin, M1980Heat tolerance in the black abalone Haliotis cracherodii: effects of temperature fluctuation and acclimationThe Veliger - California Malacozoological SocietyPDF
Hines, AH1988Fecundity and reproductive output in two species of deep-sea crabs, Geryon fenneri and G. quinquedens (Decapoda: Brachyura)Journal of Crustacean BiologyPDF
Hines, AH1982Coexistence in a Kelp Forest: Size, Population Dynamics, and Resource Partitioning in a Guild of Spider Crabs (Brachyura , Majidae )Ecological MonographsPDF
Hines, AH & Pearse, JS1982Abalones, shells, and sea otters: Dynamics of prey populations in Central CaliforniaEcologyPDF
Hobson, ES & Chess, JR1986Relationships among fishes and their prey in a nearshore sand community off southern CaliforniaEnvironmental Biology of fishesPDF
Hobson, ES & Chess, JR1976Trophic interactions among fishes and zooplankters near shore at Santa Catalina Island, CaliforniaFisheries BulletinPDF
Holbrook, SJ et al1990Effect of giant kelp on local abundance of reef fishes the importance of ontogenetic resource requirementsBulletin of Marine SciencePDF
Holbrook, SJ et al1994Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Assemblages of Temperate Reef FishAmerican ZoologistPDF
Holbrook, SJ & Schmitt, RJ1992Causes and consequences of dietary specialization in surfperches: patch choice and intraspecific competitionEcologyPDF
Holbrook, SJ & Schmitt, RJ1989Resource Overlap, Prey Dynamics, and The Strength of CompetitionEcologyPDF
Holbrook, SJ & Schmitt, RJ1988The Combined Effects of Predation Risk and Food Reward on Patch SelectionEcologyPDF
Holbrook, SJ & Schmitt, RJ1986Food acquisition by competing surfperch on a patchy environmental gradientEnvironmental Biology of FishesPDF
Holbrook, SJ & Schmitt, RJ1984Experimental analyses of patch selection by foraging black surfperch (Embiotoca jacksoni Agazzi)Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Holbrook, SJ; Schmitt, RJ & Coyer, JA1985Age-Related Dietary Patterns of Sympatric Adult SurfperchCopeiaPDF
Holbrook, SJ; Schmitt, RJ & Stephens, JS1997Changes in an Assemblage of Temperate Reef Fishes Associated with a Climate ShiftEcological ApplicationsPDF
Holts, LJ & Beauchamp, KA1993Sexual reproduction the corallimorpharian sea anemone Corynactis californica in a cantral Californa kelp forestMarine BiologyPDF
Hooper, DU et al2012A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem changeNaturePDF
Horn, MH & Allen, LG1978A distributional analysis of California coastal marine fishesJournal of BiogeographyPDF
Hymanson, ZP et al1990The validity of using morphological characteristics as predictors of age in the kelp Pterygophora californica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)Marine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Jackson, GA1998Currents in the high drag environment of a coastal kelp stand off CaliforniaContinental Shelf ResearchPDF
Jackson, GA; James, DE & North, WJ1985Morphological relationships among fronds of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera off La Jolla , CaliforniaMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Jackson, GA & Winant, CD1983Effect of a kelp forest on coastal currentsContinental Shelf ResearchPDF
Jackson, JB et al2001Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystemsSciencePDF
Jameson, RJ et al1982History and status of translocated sea otter populations in North AmericaWildlife Society BulletinPDF
Johnson, CR & Mann, KH1988Diversity, Patterns of Adaptation, and Stability of Nova Scotian Kelp BedsEcological MonographsPDF
Johnson, CR & Mann, KH1986The crustose coralline alga, Phymatolithon Foslie, inhibits the overgrowth of seaweeds without relying on herbivoresJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Johnson, R & Mann, H1986The importance of plant defence abilities to the structure of subtidal seaweed communities: the kelp Laminaria longicruris de la Pylaie survives grazing by the snail Lacuna vincta (Montagu) at high population densitiesJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Jones, GM & Scheibling, RE1985Paramoeba sp. (Amoebida, Paramoebidae) as the possible causative agent of sea urchin mass mortality in Nova ScotiaThe Journal of ParasitologyPDF
Karr, KA2011Patterns, mechanisms and community consequences of variation in kelp forest canopiesPDF
Kato, S & Schroeter, SC1985Biology of the red sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and its fishery in CaliforniaMarine Fisheries ReviewPDF
Keats, DComment on Seaweedssea urchinsPDF
Kennelly, SJ1989Effects of kelp canopies on understorey species due to shade and scourMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Kennelly, SJ & Underwood, AJ1993Geographic consistencies of effects of experimental physical disturbance on understorey species in sublittoral kelp forests in central New South WalesJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Kennelly, SJ2006Physical disturbances in an Australian kelp community. II. Effects on understorey species due to differences in kelp coverMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Kennelly, SJ1991Caging experiments to examine the effects of fishes on understorey species in a sublittoral kelp communityJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Kennelly, SJ1987Physical disturbances in an Australian kelp community. I. Temporal effectsMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Kennelly, SJ1987Inhibition of kelp recruitment by turfing algae and consequences for an Australian kelp communityJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Kenner, MC1992Population dynamics of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in a central California kelp forest: recruitment, mortality, growth, and dietMarine BiologyPDF
Kenner, MC & Lares, MT1991Size at first reproduction of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in a central California kelp forestMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Kim, SL1989The structure and organization of a kelp forest ecotone: the Diopatra ornata communityPDF
Kimura, RS & Foster, MS1984The effects of harvesting Macrocystis pyrifera on the algal assemblage in a giant kelp forestHydrobiologiaPDF
Kingsford, MJ & Macdiarmide, AB1988Interrelations between planktivorous reef fish and zooplankton in temperate watersMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Klinger, T, & De Weede, RE1988Stipe rings, age, and size in populations of Laminaria setchellii Silva (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in British Columbia, CanadaPhycologia
Koehl, MAR & Alberte, RS1988Flow, flapping and photosynthesis of Nereocystis luetkeana: a functional comparison of undulate and flat blade morphologiesMarine BiologyPDF
Konotchick, T et al2012Vertical distribution of Macrocystis pyrifera nutrient exposure in southern CaliforniaEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf SciencePDF
Kusumo, HT & Druehl, LD2000Variability over space and time in the genetic structure of the winged kelp Alaria marginataMarine BiologyPDF
Kvitek, RG1998Sea otters and benthic prey communities: a direct test of the sea otter as keystone predator in Washington stateMarine Mammal SciencePDF
Kvitek, RG et al1989Sea otters and benthic prey communities in Washington stateMarine Mammal SciencePDF
Laur, DR, Ebeling, AW & Coon, DA1988Effects of sea otter foraging on subtidal reef communities off central CaliforniaBook: The Community Ecology of Sea Otters
Leinaas, HP & Christie, H1996Effects of Removing Sea Urching (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis): Stability of the Barren State and Succession of Kelp Forest Recovery in the East AtlanticOecologiaPDF
Leonard, GH1994Effect of the bat star Asterina miniata (Brandt) on recruitment of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera C. AgardhJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Levin, SA1988Sea otters and nearshore benthic communities: A theoretical perspectiveBook: The Community Ecology of Sea Otters
Lewis, RJ; Neushul, M & Harger, BW1986Interspecific hybridization of the species of Macrocystis in CaliforniaAquaculturePDF
Ling, SD; Ibbott, S & Sanderson, JC2010Recovery of canopy-forming macroalgae following removal of the enigmatic grazing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogrammaJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and EcologyPDF
Love, MS et al1987Life history and fishery of the California scorpionfish, Scorpaena guttata, within the southern California bightFishery BulletinPDF
Manley, SL1985Phosphate Uptake by Blades of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta)Botanica MarinaPDF
Mann, KH1972The relation between lobster abundance, sea urchins, and kelp bedsJournal Fisheries Research Board of CanadaPDF
Mathews, SB, and LaRiviere, M1987Movements of tagged lingcod, Ophiodon elongatus, in the Pacific NorthwestFishery Bulletin
Matthews, KR1990An experimental study of the habitat preferences and movement patterns of copper, quillback, and brown rockfishes (Sebastes spp.)Environmental Biology of FishesPDF
Matthews, KR1985Species similarity and movement of fishes on matural and artificial reefs in Monterey Bay, CaliforniaBulletin of Marine SciencePDF
McCleneghan, K & Houk, JL1985The effects of canopy removal on holdfast growth in Macrocystis pyriferaCalifornia Fish and Game
McGowan, JA1998Climate-Ocean Variability and Ecosystem Response in the Northeast PacificSciencePDF
Miller, RJ; Reed, DC & Brzezinski, MA2009Community structure and productivity of subtidal turf and foliose algal assemblagesMarine Ecology Progress SeriesPDF
Miller, DJ & Geibel, JJ1973Summary of blue rockfish and lingcod life histories; A reef ecology study; and giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, experiments in Monterey BayCalifornia Department of Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin
Miller, DJ, and Lea, RN1972Guide to the coastal marine fishes of CaliforniaCalifornia Department of Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin
Miller, RJ1985Succession in sea urchin and seaweed abundance in Nova Scotia , CanadaMarine BiologyPDF
Miller, RJ1985Seaweeds, sea urchins, and lobsters: A reappraisalCanadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Sciences
Monson, DH et al2000Life History Plasticity and Population Regulation in Sea Otters and population in sea otters Life history plasticity regulationPDF
Morris, T et al1981The VeligerThe Veliger - California Malacozoological Society
Murray, SN; Littler, MM & Abbott, IA1980Biogeography of the California marine algae with emphasis on the southern California islandsBiogeography of Marine AlgaePDF
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